The current curriculum of biology adopts new paradigm of education; outcomes-based education, learner-centered learning, continuous improvement, and international benchmarking and accreditation. The curriculum is periodically updated every five years by following the development processes of the curriculum in consideration of several principles as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Principles of curriculum development
The formulated curriculum structure supports the achievements of the PLO. Each course carries a specific PLO. By plotting all PLOs in the entire course, it can be assumed that the courses taken by students will facilitate the achievement of PLO in Biology education study programs. The suitability or plotting of PLO with courses is presented in Table 4 below
Table 4. Relationship of PLO and Courses
To complete study program, students are required to complete 144 credit units (CUs) comprised of 123 CUs of compulsory courses and 21 CUs of elective course (Table 5). Students can take up to 24 credit units per term. An academic year, which generally began around August, consists of two terms. In general, study program can be completed in four academic years.
Table 5. Distribution of compulsory and elective courses in Biology Education Undergraduate Program
|Courses||Credit units||Number of courses|
|Compulsory courses||133||Credit unit of courses are distributed into 48 compulsory courses|
|Elective courses||11||Total of 46 available compulsory credit units are distributed into 23 elective courses. Students should take at least 11 credit units or 6 elective courses.|
Referring to the 2019/2020 academic handbook, one CU for a bachelor’s degree is equals to 3 workhours per week or 170 minutes or 2.83 hours (50 ‘face-to-face learning, 60’ structured learning, and 60 ‘independent-study). In one semester, courses are conducted in 14 weeks (excluding mid and end term-of-semester exams). Thus, 1 CU is equaled to 39.67 workhours per semester. Conversion of CU units into ECTS units refers to the assumption that 1 ECTS is equal to 28.56 working hours per semester so that 1 CU is equaled to 1.586667 or 1.59 ECTS working hours per semester. Overall, at UNESA, the minimum workload for the Undergraduate Program at UNESA is 144 credits (CU) which are equivalent to 5,712 hours or 228.48 ECTS and are generally distributed in 8 regular semesters. On average, the total hours per semester are 714 hours. The normal workload for each regular semester is limited to 793.33 hours, corresponding to 20 CU (32 ECTS).